|Mode||Travelcard||PAYG||Bus & Tram Pass||OEP required|
|Southeastern High Speed||n/a|
|London River Services||n/a|
= Valid or required.
= Not valid or not required.
= Heathrow Connect: Not valid between Hayes and Harlington and Heathrow Airport.
= River: PAYG only available on Thames Clipper; Travelcards only provide discount, not valid for travel.
! = must include Zone 3,4,5 or 6
TfL services Edit
Oyster Card is operated by Transport for London and has been valid on all London Underground, London buses, DLR and London Tramlink services since its launch in 2003.
National Rail Edit
The introduction of Oyster pay as you go on the National Rail commuter rail network in London was phased in gradually over a period of about six years (see Roll-out history). Since January 2010, PAYG has been valid on all London suburban rail services which currently accept Travelcards. Additionally, PAYG may be used at a selected number of stations which lie just outside the zones. New maps were issued in January 2010 which illustrates where PAYG is now valid.
Certain limitations remain on National Rail, however; Oyster PAYG is NOT valid anywhere on Heathrow Express, Heathrow Connect between Hayes and Harlington and Heathrow Airport, on ANY Southeastern High speed services or on the forthcoming Olympic Javelin Shuttle. Other airport express services (Gatwick Express, Stansted Express and First Capital Connect Luton Airport services) all run outside the Travelcard zones, so PAYG is not valid on those services either.
In November 2007 the metro routes operated by Silverlink were brought under the control of TfL and operated under the brand name London Overground. From the first day of operation, Oyster PAYG became valid on all Overground routes.
London River Services Edit
Since 23 November 2009, Oyster PAYG has been valid on London River Services boats which are operated by Thames Clippers only. Oyster cards are accepted for all Thames Clippers scheduled services, the Hilton Docklands ferry, the "Tate to Tate" service and the O2 Express. Discounts on standard fares are offered to Oyster card holders, except on the O2 Express. The daily price capping guarantee does not apply to journeys made on Thames Clippers.
The pricing system is fairly complex, and changes from time to time. The most up to date fares can be found on Transport for London's FareFinder website (see External links).
To encourage passengers to switch to Oyster, cash fares are generally much more expensive than PAYG fares (including Bus and Tram fares):
A cash bus or tram fare is £2, while the single Oyster fare is £1.20, but capped at £3.90 for any number of trips in a day. Using pay as you go, a single trip on the Tube within Zone 1 costs £1.80 (compared to £4 cash), or from £1.30 (£3.50 cash) within any other single zone.
Fare capping Edit
A 'capping' system was introduced on 27 February 2005, which means that an Oyster card will be charged no more than the nearest equivalent Day Travelcard for a day's travel, providing that the card has been touched in and out correctly for all rail journeys.
Holders of Disabled Persons, HM Forces, Senior, 16-25 National Rail Railcards and Annual Gold Cards (as of 23 May 2010) receive a 34% reduction in the off-peak price cap; Railcard discounts can be loaded on to Oyster Cards at Underground, Overground and some National Rail ticket offices.
Price capping does not apply to PAYG fares on London River Services boats.
Bus & Tram Discount Edit
On 20 August 2007, a 'Bus and Tram Discount photocard' became available for London Oyster card users who received Income Support. It allows them to pay only £0.60 for a one way bus trip (capped at £1.95 for any number of trips in a day), and to buy half price period bus passes. This was the result of a deal between Transport for London and Petróleos de Venezuela to provide fuel for London buses at a 20% discount. In return Transport for London agreed to open an office in the Venezuelan capital Caracas to offer expertise on town planning, tourism, public protection and environmental issues.
The deal with Venezuela was ended by Mayor Boris Johnson shortly after he took office, and the Bus and Tram Discount photocard scheme closed to new applications on 20 August 2008; Johnson said that "TfL will honour the discount [on existing cards] until the six month time periods on cards have run out".
The Bus and Tram Discount Scheme reopened on 2 January 2009, this time funded by London fare payers. The scheme has been extended to people receiving Employment Support Allowance (ESA) and to those receiving Job Seekers Allowance for 13 weeks or more.
River boat discounts Edit
Boats operated by Thames Clippers offer a 10% discount on standard fares to Oyster PAYG users, except on their O2 Express service, and a 33% discount to passengers carrying Oyster cards which have been loaded with a valid period Travelcard.
Penalty fares and maximum Oyster fare Edit
In order to prevent "misuse" by a stated 2% of passengers, from 19 November 2006 Pay-as-you-go users who do not both 'touch in' at the start and 'touch out' at the end of their rail network journeys are charged a "maximum Oyster fare" - currently up to £7 (presumably depending on whether journeys have been made during or outside peak times) for most journeys, or more if the journey begins or ends at certain National Rail stations. Depending on the journey made, the difference between this maximum fare and the actual fare due is automatically refunded to the user's Oyster card upon touching out.
Users must touch in and out even if the ticket barriers are open. At stations where Oyster is accepted but that do not have ticket barriers, an Oyster validator will be provided for the purposes of touching in and out. The maximum Oyster fare applies even if the daily price cap has been reached and does not count towards the cap.
Maximum Oyster fares may be contested by telephone to the Oyster helpline on 0845 330 9876. This involves providing the Oyster card number and the relevant journey details; further journeys appearing on the card are helpful to validate the user's claim.
If the claim is accepted then the maximum Oyster fare minus the cost of the journey will be refunded. The user will be asked to nominate and make a journey from a specific Tube, DLR, London Overground or National Rail station, or Tramlink stop. On touching 'in', the refund is loaded to the card. The customer should make the pick up as part of his or her regular travel pattern. This is because when they touch the reader with their Oyster card, not only will the refund go on to the card, but a new journey will start.
The refund can be 'available' at the nominated station from the next day and will remain there for 8 days in total. After this time the refund will be deleted from the gate line, and the customer will have to re-request the refund.
Oyster users who do not touch in before making a journey may be liable to pay a penalty fare (currently £50) and/or reported for prosecution if caught by a revenue protection inspector.
Roll-out history Edit
The roll-out of Oyster features and migration from the paper-based system has been phased. Milestones so far have been:
- London Underground ticket barriers, bus ticket machines, Docklands Light Railway stations and Tramlink stops fitted with validators. Cards issued to Transport for London, London Underground, and bus operator staff (2002)
- Cards issued to the public for annual and monthly tickets (2003)
- Freedom Passes issued on Oyster (2004)
- Pay as you go (PAYG, first called 'prepay') launched on London Underground, DLR, and the parts of National Rail where Underground fares had previously been valid. (January 2004)
- Off-Peak Oyster single fares launched (January 2004)
- Annual tickets available only on Oyster (2004)
- Monthly tickets available only on Oyster, unless purchased from a station operated by a train company rather than TfL (2004)
- Payg on buses (May 2004)
- Daily price capping (February 2005)
- Student Oyster Photocards for students over 18 (early 2005)
- Oyster Child Photocards for under 16s—free travel on buses and reduced fares on trains (August 2005)
- Automatic top-up (September 2005)
- Weekly tickets available only on Oyster (September 2005)
- Oyster single fares cost up to 33% less than paper tickets (January 2006)
- Auto top-up on buses and trams (June 2006)
- Journey history for Pay as you go transactions available online (July 2006)
- Ability for active and retired railway staff who have a staff travel card to obtain privilege travel fares on the Underground with Oyster (July 2006)
- £4 or £5 'maximum cash fare' charged for Pay as you go journeys without a 'touch in' and 'touch out' (November 2006)
- Oyster Card for visitors branded cards launched and sold by Gatwick Express.
- Oyster PAYG extended to London Overground (11 November 2007)
- Holders of Railcards (but not Network Railcard) can link their Railcard to Oyster to have PAYG capped at 34% below the normal rate since 2 January 2008.
- Oyster PAYG can be used to buy tickets on river services operated by Thames Clipper (23 November 2009)
- Oyster PAYG extended to National Rail (2 January 2010)
Roll-out on National Rail Edit
The National Rail network is mostly outside the control of Transport for London, and passenger services are run by number of independent rail companies. Because of this, acceptance of Oyster PAYG on National Rail services was subject to the policy of each individual company and the roll-out of PAYG was much slower than on TfL services. For the first six years of Oyster, rollout on National Rail was gradual and uneven, with validity limited to specific lines and stations.
Several rail companies have historically accepted London Underground single fares because they duplicate London Underground routes, and they adopted the Oyster PAYG on those sections of the line which run alongside the Underground. When TfL took over the former Silverlink Metro railway lines, PAYG was rolled out on the first day of operation of London Overground. As a consequence, some rail operators whose services run parallel to London Overground lines were forced to accept PAYG, although only after some initial hesitation.
The process of persuading the various rail firms involved a long process of negotiation between the London Mayors and train operating companies. In 2005 Ken Livingstone (then Mayor of London) began a process of trying to persuade National Rail train operating companies to allow Oyster PAYG on all of their services within London, but a dispute about ticketing prevented this plan from going ahead. After further negotiations, Transport for London offered to fund the train operating companies with £20m to provide Oyster facilities in London stations; this resulted in an outline agreement to introduce PAYG acceptance across the entire London rail network.
TfL announced a National Rail rollout date of May 2009, but negotiation with the private rail firms continued to fail and the rollout was delayed to 2010. Oyster readers were installed at many National Rail stations across London, but they remained covered up and not in use. In November 2009 it was finally confirmed that that PAYG would be valid on National Rail from January 2010. The rollout was accompanied by the introduction of a new system of Oyster Extension Permits to allow travelcard holders to travel outside their designated zones on National Rail. This system was introduced to address the revenue protection concerns of the rail companies, but it has been criticised for its complexity.
Since the introduction of the Oyster card, the number of customers paying cash fares on buses has dropped dramatically. In addition, usage of station ticket offices has dropped, to the extent that in June 2007, TfL announced that a number of their ticket offices would close, with some others reducing their opening hours. TfL suggested that the staff would be 're-deployed' elsewhere on the network, including as train drivers.
In August 2010 the issue of the impact of the Oyster card on staffing returned. In response to The National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers (RMT) ballot for a strike over planned job cuts, TfL stated that the increase in people using Oyster electronic ticketing cards meant only one in 20 journeys now involved interaction with a ticket office. As a result it aims to reduce staff in ticket offices and elsewhere while deploying more workers to help passengers in stations.
Usage statistics Edit
By June 2010 over 34 million cards have been issued of which around 7 million are in regular use. More than 80% of all tube journeys and more than 90% of all bus journeys use Oyster. Around 38% of all Tube journeys and 21% of all bus journeys are made using Oyster pay as you go. Use of single tickets has declined and stands at roughly 1.5% of all bus journeys and 3% of all Tube journeys.
Beyond London Edit
However the one day paper travel card is currently cheaper than the maximum daily cap on Oyster PAYG due to the zone/fare information being directly copied from Watford Junction station.
When ITSO smartcards are introduced to the National Rail network, it will be possible to load tickets sold outside London but valid in London for use on the Oyster estate. There are no current plans to accept ITSO stored travel rights, or pay as you go, in the Oyster area.
Visual design Edit
Trial versions, Transport for London staff versions and the first version of the standard Oyster card for the public were originally released with the roundels on the front of the cards in red. Standard issues of the Oyster card have been updated since the first public release in order to meet TfL's Design Standards.
So far, there have been three issues of the standard Oyster card, including the original red roundel issue, but all three Oyster cards have retained their original dimensions of 85mm x 55mm, with Oyster card number and reference number located in the top right hand corner and bottom right hand corner of the back of the card respectively, along with the terms and conditions.
The second issue of the standard Oyster card saw 'Transport for London' branding on the back of the card, along with the Mayor of London (having replaced just the 'LONDON' branding in the blue segment of the card's back). The roundel on the front of the card was changed from the colour red to white, as white was seen to represent Transport for London (whereas a red roundel is more known to represent London Buses).
The most recent issue of the standard Oyster card sees TfL branding on the front of the Oyster card, having removed it from the back of the card from the previous issue. The Mayor of London branding has also been moved from the blue segment from the back of the card to underneath the terms and conditions, where it is more prominent.
Oyster card holder/wallet Edit
With the release of the Oyster card, TfL released an accompanying Oyster card holder to replace the existing designs, previously sponsored by companies such as Yellow Pages and Direct Line, as well as London Underground's and London Buses own releases of the holder which came without advertising.
The official Oyster branded holders have only been redesigned twice, keeping up with various versions of the Oyster card. However, in 2007 the Oyster Card wallets were redesigned and are now black.
In March 2007 the Oyster card holder was redesigned by British designers including Katharine Hamnett, Frostfrench and Gharani Strok for Oxfam's I'm In campaign to end world poverty. The designer wallets were available for a limited period of time from Oxfam's street teams in London who handed them out to people who signed up to the I'm In movement. Also, to celebrate 100 years of the Piccadilly Line, a series of limited edition Oyster card wallets were commissioned from selected artists from the Thin Cities Platform for Art project. Any new Oyster cards are now given with black wallets that display the Oyster logo and the Transport for London roundel. The previous wallets handed out were sponsored by Ikea who also sponsor the tube map, and did not display the Oyster or the London Underground logos.
In addition to the official wallets distributed by TfL, which may or may not carry advertising for a sponsor, Oyster card holders and wallets are sometimes used as a marketing tool by other organisations seeking to promote their identity or activities. Such items are normally given away free, either with products or handed out to the public.
Staff cards Edit
The standard public Oyster card is blue, but colour variants are used by transport staff; a pale blue version is issued to TfL Staff, purple cards for bus operators and red for retired TfL staff.
Issues and criticisms Edit
The system has been criticisedTemplate:Who as a threat to the privacy of its users. Each Oyster card is uniquely numbered, and registration is required for monthly or longer tickets, which are no longer available on paper. Limited usage data is stored on the card. Journey and transaction history is held centrally by Transport for London for up to 8 weeks, after which the transactions and journey history are disassociated from the Oyster card and cannot be re-associated; full registration details are held centrally and not on individual Oyster cards; recent usage can be checked by anyone in possession of the card at some ticket machines.
The police have used Oyster card data as an investigative tool, and this use is increasing. Between August 2004 and March 2006 TfL's Information Access and Compliance Team received 436 requests from the police for Oyster card information. Of these, 409 requests were granted and the data were released to the police. Additionally, in 2008 news reports indicated that the security services were seeking access to all Oyster card data for the purposes of counter-terrorism. Such access is currently not provided to the security services.
As yet, there have been no reports of customer data being misused, outside the terms of the registration agreement. There have been no reports of Oyster data being lost.
Oyster PAYG users, on London Underground, DLR, National Rail and London Overground services are required always to "touch in" and "touch out" to cause the correct fare to be charged. This requirement is less obviously enforced at stations where there are only standalone Oyster validators rather than ticket barriers. Without a physical barrier, PAYG users may simply forget to "touch in" or fail to touch their card correctly, which will result in a maximum fare being charged. Equally, if the barriers do not function (reading 'SEEK ASSISTANCE') and the TfL operative has to open the gates manually, then the maximum fare may be charged. If this occurs a refund may be requested by telephoning the Oyster helpline the day after the incident occurs (to allow time for the central computers to be updated); the overcharged amount can be added back to the PAYG balance on the card from the following day when the Oyster card is used to make a journey.
The use of Oyster cards on buses has been subject to criticism following a number of prosecutions by TfL of passengers who had failed to "touch in" correctly on boarding a bus. In particular, problems have been highlighted in connection with the quality of error messages given to passengers when touching in has failed for any reason. In one case, a passenger successfully appealed against his conviction for fare evasion when the court noted that the passenger believed he had paid for his journey because the Oyster reader did not give sufficient error warning.
The PAYG system has a minimum entry threshold, set at the fare for the cheapest journey from the entry point. Due to capping, this entry threshold may be zero for some users if they have reached the daily cap. The PAYG system allows cards to go into a negative balance but further entry into the system is prohibited as the entry threshold cannot be met with a card in negative balance, even if a valid travelcard is loaded onto the card. As a result, ticket barriers will not open for entry when the user swipes their card if the card has a negative PAYG balance. This can be a problem in isolated areas with only a single location where an Oyster card can be topped up—such as the local newsagent—and the top-up machine had broken down.
If an Oyster card with a remaining value stops working, the user must fill in a form for a new card, and all the details are transferred across to the new card. The users must then update the Oyster card details manually on the Oyster card website in order to continue with any online sales. Unless the user is careful, it is possible to inadvertently purchase tickets online for the old card.
Pay as you go cannot be added to a Freedom Pass (used for free travel by Londoners with a qualifying disability or Londoners over 60), even though the Freedom Pass is not valid before 09:30 on some National Rail services and an alternative payment is necessary.
The management of all student versions of the Oyster Card is tied to the academic year and requires all of London's secondary school students (especially those between 16 and 18) to apply for new cards within the same four-week period in September, as their cards expire at the end of the month. Any pay as you held on the current card can only be transferred to the new card by telephoning Oyster card customer services. Remaining Travelcard value cannot be transferred and must instead be refunded by cheque. This is mitigated in part by 11-15 cards remaining valid from first issue until the end of the academic year in which the cardholder turns 16.
Technical faults Edit
In January 2004, on the day that the pay as you go system went live on all Oyster cards, some season ticket passengers were prevented from making a second journey on their travelcard. Upon investigation each had a negative prepay balance. This was widely reported as a major bug in the system. However, the reason for the "bug" was that some season ticket holders were passing through zones not included on their tickets. The existing paper system could not prevent this kind of misuse as the barriers only checked if a paper ticket was valid in the zone the barrier was in.
On 10 March 2005 an incorrect data table meant that the Oyster system was inoperable during the morning rush hour. Ticket barriers had to be left open and Pay as you go fares could not be collected.
On 12 July 2008 an incorrect data table disabled an estimated 72,000 Oystercards, including Travelcards, Staff Passes, Freedom Passes, Child Oystercards and other electronic tickets. The Oyster system was shut down and later restarted during traffic hours. Some customers already in the system were overcharged. Refunds were given to those affected and all disabled cards were replaced. Freedom Pass holders had to apply to their local authority for replacement passes (as these are not managed by TfL).
A further system failure occurred two weeks later on 25 July 2008, when pay as you go cards were not read properly.
The difference between pay as you go and Travelcards Edit
Transport for London promoted the Oyster card at launch with many adverts seeking to portray it as an alternative to the paper Travelcard. In late 2005 the Advertising Standards Authority ordered the withdrawal of one such poster which claimed that Oyster pay as you go was "more convenient" than Travelcards with "no need to plan in advance". The ASA ruled that the two products were not directly comparable, mainly because the pay as you go facility was not valid on most National Rail routes at the time.
Transport for London makes a significant profit from excess fares deducted for those travelling using PAYG and failing to touch out as they exit stations. According to information obtained under the Freedom of Information Act TfL made £32m from pay as you go cards of which £18m was maximum fares for failing to touch out. Only £803,000 was paid in refunds, showing that whilst customers can apply for a refund, most do not. The maximum fares for failing to touch out were introduced late 2006. It is up to the customer to ensure they have validated their card correctly for their journey.
Validity on National Rail Edit
Until the roll-out of Oyster PAYG on National Rail in January 2010, the validity of PAYG was not consistent across different modes of transport within London, and this gave rise to confusion for Oyster PAYG users. Many passengers were caught out trying to use Pay as you go on rail routes where it was not valid.
On some National Rail routes where PAYG was valid, Oyster validators had not been installed at some intermediate stations. While Oyster PAYG users could legally travel along those lines to certain destinations, they were not permitted to board or alight at intermediate stations. If their journey began or ended at an intermediate station, they would be unable to touch out and consequently be liable for penalty fares or prosecution.
The complexity of Oyster validity on these routes was criticised for increasing the risk of passengers inadvertently failing to pay the correct fare. Criticism was also levelled at train operating companies for failing to provide adequate warnings to passengers about Oyster validity on their routes and for not installing Oyster readers at certain stations.[dead link]
TfL published guides to the limitations of PAYG validity diagrammatic maps illustrating PAYG validity were published in November 2006 by National Rail, but these were rarely on display at stations and had to be obtained from transport websites.[dead link]
Online and telesales Edit
Oyster card ticket renewals and PAYG top-ups made online allow users to make purchases without the need to go to a ticket office or vending machine. However there are certain limitations to this system:
- tickets and PAYG funds can only be added to the Oyster card from the day after purchase;
- users must select a station or tram stop where they must touch in or out as part of a normal journey to complete the purchase (as cards cannot be credited remotely);
- users must nominate the station in advance - failure to enter or exit via this station means that the ticket is not added to the card;
- tickets purchased in this way cannot be added from a bus reader (due to these not being fixed in a permanent location).
Security issues Edit
In June 2008, researchers at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, who had previously succeeded in hacking OV-chipkaart (Dutch public transport system), hacked an Oyster card, which is also based on the MIFARE Classic chip. They scanned a card reader to obtain its cryptographic key, then used a wireless antenna attached to a laptop computer to brush up against passengers on the London Underground and extract the information from their cards. With that information they were able to clone a card, add credit to it, and use it to travel on the Underground for at least a day. The MIFARE chip manufacturers NXP Semiconductor sought a court injunction to prevent the publication of the details of this security breach, but this was overturned on appeal.
The Mifare Classic—which is also used as a security pass for controlling entry into buildings—has been criticised as having very poor security, and NXP criticised for trying to ensure security by secrecy rather than strong encryption. "The security of Mifare Classic is terrible. This is not an exaggeration; it's kindergarten cryptography. Anyone with any security experience would be embarrassed to put his name to the design. NXP attempted to deal with this embarrassment by keeping the design secret". Breaching security on Oyster cards should not allow unauthorised use for more than a day, as TfL promises to turn off any cloned cards within 24 hours, but a cloned Mifare Classic can allow entry into buildings that use this system for security.
Strategic research Edit
Transport for London, in partnership with academic institutions such as MIT, has begun to use the data captured by the Oyster smartcard system for strategic research purposes, with the general goal of using Oyster data to gain cheap and accurate insights into the behaviour and experience of passengers. Specific projects include estimation of Origin-Destination Matrices for the London Underground, analysis of bus-to-bus and bus-to-tube interchange behaviour, modelling and analysis of TfL-wide fare policy changes, and measurement of service quality on the London Overground.
See also Edit
- ↑ What is Oyster?. Transport for London. Retrieved on 10 August 2008.
- ↑ Template:Cite news
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- ↑ Oyster Card: The highs and lows of Oyster. Computer Weekly (14 July 2008). Retrieved on 10 August 2008.
- ↑ http://www.ciltuk.org.uk/download_files/ltfapr06underground.pdf
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- ↑ MIFARE.net - Easing travel in London’s congested public transport network
- ↑ NFC Times- Transport for London to Discard Mifare Classic
- ↑ Foiling the Oyster Card - SpyBlog
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- ↑ TfL Conditions of Carriage. TfL (23 May 2010). Retrieved on 18 June 2010.[dead link]
- ↑ Transport for London - Oyster online shop
- ↑ Changes to Oyster card deposit from 17 May 2009 - Transport for London. Retrieved 27 September 2009
- ↑ http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/times_fares/london/oyster_issue.html
- ↑ Conditions of Carriage. TfL (2 January 2010). Retrieved on 4 January 2010. (section 6.6.4)
- ↑ London Overground Ticketing and travel guide. TfL (2 January 2010). Retrieved on 4 January 2010.[dead link] (section 6.6.5)
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 You Are Leaving Zone 2: Please Have Your Exit Visa Ready. The Londonist (16 November 2009). Retrieved on 19 November 2009.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Oyster PAYG On National Rail From 2 Jan. London Reconnections (13 November 2009). Retrieved on 4 January 2010.
- ↑ Transport for London. Online Oyster FAQ question. Retrieved on 24 April 2010.
- ↑ Guide to using tickets and PAYG on buses outside London2007
- ↑ Bus and Tram ticket prices - Transport for London
- ↑ Get The Most Leaflet[dead link]
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Mayor announces Oysterisation of Thames Clippers river services. TfL (23 November 2009). Retrieved on 26 November 2009.[dead link]
- ↑ Out of Station Interchange (OSI). Oyster and National Rail (independent guide) (26 May 2010). Retrieved on 31 May 2010.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 Transport for London. Oyster online help. Retrieved on 17 November 2007.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 "Application fee to be introduced for new Zip Oyster photocard applications from 1 September", Transport for London, July 23, 2010
- ↑ Transport for London - 18+ Student Oyster photocard scheme – academic year 2006–2007
- ↑ Zip on board with Oyster
- ↑ Barclaycard OnePulse. Barclaycard. Retrieved on 4 January 2010.
- ↑ Transport for London - New deal brings Oyster and Barclaycard Visa onto one card
- ↑ The Register - TfL shelves Oyster e-money
- ↑ London Tube Map. London Insider (November 2009). Retrieved on 26 November 2009.
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- ↑ Transport for London (11 November 2007). Oyster on London Overground. Retrieved on 16 November 2007.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Oyster pay as you go. Thames Clipper (23 November 2009). Retrieved on 26 November 2009.
- ↑ Mayor's 'cheap oil deal' slammed. BBC News Online (13 September 2006). Retrieved on 25 January 2008.
- ↑ What should I do if I can't touch out at the end of my journey?. Transport For London helpsite. Retrieved on 19 June 2008.
- ↑ Transport for London - A faster, easier 7 Day Travelcard on Oyster
- ↑ Transport for London - Big savings in 2006 by switching from cash for single journeys to Oyster
- ↑ Mayor of London - Plane, Train and Oyster. 6 March 2007.
- ↑ TfL - Discounted daily price capping - Railcards. 8 February 2008.
- ↑ National Rail - Oyster Pay as you go (PAYG) on National Rail
- ↑ Transport for London (19 November 2007). TfL welcomes Oyster on London Midland services. Press Release. Archived from the original on November 24, 2007. Retrieved on 19 November 2007.
- ↑ The Watford Observer (12 November 2007). All change at Watford Junction. Retrieved on 17 November 2007.
- ↑ The Watford Observer (15 November 2007). London Midland admits error. Retrieved on 19 November 2007.
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- ↑ Wall Street Journal (August 11, 2010). London Tube Workers Vote to Strike. Press Article. Retrieved on 20 August 2010.
- ↑  ITSO Oyster Interoperability
- ↑ OysterCardRFI - Letter from TfL in response to a freedom of information request
- ↑ Guardian - MI5 seeks powers to trawl records in new terror hunt
- ↑ Matt Stephens (13 February 2005). The Oyster Gotcha. Retrieved on 17 November 2007.
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- ↑ BBC News - Inquiry into Tube's Oyster card
- ↑ BBC News - '£50,000 lost' in Oyster failure
- ↑ All go free in Oyster cards fiasco. Evening Standard (12 July 2008).
- ↑ Thousands go free on Tube as Oyster breaks down again. Evening Standard (25 July 2008). Retrieved on 25 July 2008.
- ↑ BBC News - Travel card poster ordered down
- ↑ Advertising Standards Authority - ASA Adjudication: Objections to four posters for the Oyster card, a ticket for travel within London.
- ↑ "TfL taps into £18m from Oyster fines", thelondonpaper, page 6, Friday 30 May 2008
- ↑ Rail bosses bank £32m Oyster windfall from errors by passengers
- ↑ House of Commons Transport Committee (2008). Ticketing and Concessionary Travel on Public Transport. The Stationery Office, 16. ISBN 978-0-215-51449-3. Retrieved on 4 January 2009.
- ↑ Our Year (PDF). Annual Review 2006 11. London TravelWatch (2006). Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved on 6 March 2008. “But the non-availability of Oyster’s pay-as-you-go ‘electronic purse’ facility on most National Rail routes has caused widespread confusion to passengers, many of whom have been charged penalty fares as a result. We have pressed the train companies to publicise their rules more effectively, and to be more sympathetic in their treatment of honest travellers who break them unknowingly.”
- ↑ Oyster Cards at Romford Station (3 August 2008). Retrieved on 4 January 2010.
- ↑ Where can I use my Oyster Card on National Rail?. National Rail (2008). Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved on 10 August 2008. (archived page)
- ↑ Jonathan Moyes (8 February 2008). Anger over Oyster card station 'snub'. Waltham Forest Guardian. Retrieved on 6 March 2008. “Wood Street in Walthamstow, Highams Park and Chingford on the Chingford to Liverpool Street line(...) do not currently have Oyster card readers(...) despite Oyster machines being installed in stations from Liverpool Street to Walthamstow Central on the same line.”
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 London Assembly member Roger Evans criticises arrangements at Romford: Template:Cite news
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Using Oyster to pay as you go on National Rail services. Transport for London. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007. Retrieved on 19 August 2007.
- ↑ Map of Oyster Pay as you go on National Rail (PDF). National Rail. Archived from the original on November 28, 2006. Retrieved on 30 December 2006. Also available from TfL website Map of Oyster Pay as you go on National Rail (PDF). Transport for London. Retrieved on 19 August 2007.[dead link]
- ↑ Brenno de Winter (18 June 2008). Radboud onderzoekers kraken ook Oyster card. Webwereld. Retrieved on 18 June 2008. “Radboud onderzoekers kraken ook Oyster Card.” Template:Nl icon
- ↑ Alexander Lew (24 June 2008). Hackers Crack London Tube's Ticketing System. Wired. Retrieved on 3 July 2008. “Dutch security researchers rode the London Underground free for a day after easily using an ordinary laptop to clone the smartcards commuters use to pay fares”
- ↑ Oyster card hack to be unveiled. BBC News (21 July 2008). Retrieved on 21 July 2008.
- ↑ Gordillo, Fabio (2006). "The value of automated fare collection data for transit planning: an example of rail transit OD matrix estimation".
- ↑ Chan, Joanne (2007). "Rail transit OD matrix estimation and journey time reliability metrics using automated fare data".
- ↑ Seaborn, Catherine (2008). "Application of Smart Card Fare Payment Data to Bus Network Planning in London, UK".
- ↑ Zureiqat, Hazem (2008). "Fare Policy Analysis for Public Transport: A Discrete‐Continuous Modeling Approach Using Panel Data".
- ↑ Frumin, Michael (2010). Automatic Data for Applied Railway Management: Passenger Demand, Service Quality Measurement, and Tactical Planning on the London Overground Network.
- Oyster Card
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- Transport for London Design Standards
- Transport for London FareFinder
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